高登娱乐
高登娱乐登录注册 Copyright(C)2009-2017
分类查询
 
会员登录
 
登录账号:
登录密码:
验 证 码:
您好,您已登录
您有条新到站内短信
会员中心 退出登录
发布于:2018-10-27 11:34:46  访问:131 次 回复:0 篇
版主管理 | 推荐 | 删除 | 删除并扣分
Controlling ESDEOS During The Soldering Process
Controlling ESD/EOS during the Soldering Process
When the tip of a soldering iron comes into direct electrical contact with the pins of a sensitive component, there is a danger of voltage and/or current signal transfer between:
• the grounded iron tip and the grounded PC board,
• the ungrounded iron tip and the grounded PC board,
• the grounded iron tip and the ungrounded PC board.
This can cause Electrical Overstress (EOS) and Electrostatic Discharge (ESD).
What is EOS and why is it important to detect?
EOS is the exposure of a component or PCB board to a current and/or voltage outside its operational range. This absolute maximum rating (AMR) differs from one device to the next and needs to be provided by the manufacturer of each component used during the soldering process. EOS can cause damage, malfunction or accelerated aging in sensitive devices.
ESD can be generated if a component and a board have different potentials and the voltage transfers from one to the other. When such an event happens, the component goes through EOS. ESD can influence EOS, but EOS can also be influenced by other signals.
Many people are familiar with Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) which is caused by the spontaneous discharge between two materials that are at different levels of ElectroStatic potential. Once electrostatic potential between the two materials is balanced, the ESD event will stop.
An EOS event on the other hand is created by voltage and/or current spikes when operating equipment; it can therefore last "as long as the originating signal exists". [Source] The potentially never-ending stimulus of EOS is what makes it such a big concern in the electronics industry. Even though the voltage levels are generally much lower compared to an ESD event, applying this smaller voltage combined with a larger peak current over a long period of time will cause significant damage.
The high temperatures during an EOS event (created by the high current) can lead to visible EOS damage.
For more information on EOS and the differences to ESD, check-out this post.
Sources of EOS during the Soldering Process
When soldering components, it’s the tip of the soldering iron that comes into contact with the potentially sensitive device. Therefore, many people assume the soldering tip is the cause of ESD/EOS. However, the soldering iron and its tip are just some of the components used at a workbench. Other components on the bench like tweezers, wiring, test equipment, etc. can also be sources of ESD/EOS as they come into contact with the component or board:
• Loss of Ground
The tip of an ungrounded soldering iron can accumulate a voltage of up to ? of the iron’s supply voltage. It can be caused within the soldering iron itself or in power outlets.
• Noise on Ground
If a noise signal exists on ground, the tip of the solder iron will carry noise, too. These high-frequency signals, or electromagnetic interference (EMI), are disturbances that affect an electrical circuit, due to either electromagnetic induction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source.
• Noise on Power Lines
Noise not only generates via ground but in power lines, too. Transformers and power supplies that convert voltages to 24V are the main culprit. They regularly carry high-frequency spikes which end up on the tip of the soldering iron.
• Power Tools
Although not technically related to the soldering process itself, it’s worth mentioning that the tips of power tools (e.g. electric screwdrivers) may not be properly grounded during rotation. This can result in high voltage on the tip itself.
• Missing/Inadequate ESD Protection
ESD can be a cause of EOS damage. Therefore, it is essential to have proper ESD Protection in place. A voltage on the operator or the PCB board can otherwise lead to an ESD Event and expose the components on the PCB to EOS.
Detecting EOS during the Soldering Process
1. Diagnostic Tools
• SCS CTM051 Ground Pro Meter
The SCS CTM051 Ground Pro Meter is a comprehensive instrument that measures ground impedance, AC and DC voltage on the ground as well as the presence of high-frequency noise or electromagnetic interference (EMI) voltage on the ground. It will alert if the soldering iron tip has lost its ground or has EMI voltage induced into the tip from an internal source on the soldering iron or from an EMI noisy ground or power lines.
• SCS CTM048 EM Eye – ESD Event Meter
The SCS CTM048 EM Eye – ESD Event Meter paired with the SCS CTC028 EM Field Sensor is a diagnostic tool for the detection and analysis of ESD events and electromagnetic fields and can identify sources of harmful ESD Events and electromagnetic interference (EMI).
2. EOS Continuous Monitors
• SCS CTC331-WW Iron Man? Plus Workstation Monitor
The SCS CTC331-WW Iron Man? Plus Workstation Monitor is a single workstation continuous monitor which continuously monitors the path-to-ground integrity of an operator and conductive/dissipative worksurface and meets ANSI/ESD S20.20.The Iron Man? Plus Workstation Monitor is an essential tool when it comes to EOS detection. The unit is capable of detecting EOS on boards and alarms if an overvoltage (?5V or less) from a tool such as a soldering iron or electric screwdriver is applied to a circuit board under assembly.
3. Data Acquisition
• SCS Static Management Program
SCS Static Management Program (SMP) continuously monitors the ESD parameters throughout all stages of manufacturing. It captures data from SCS workstation monitors, ground integrity monitors for equipment, ESD event and static voltage continuous monitors and provides real-time data of manufacturing processes. The SCS 770063 EM Aware Monitor, which is part of SMP, can help during the soldering process by monitoring ESD events and change of static voltage that may result in EOS. The EM Aware alarms (visual and audibly) locally and sends data to the database of the SMP system if any of the ESD parameters are detected to be higher than user-defined limits.
Eliminating EOS during the Soldering Process
Once the source of EOS is known, there are many things that can be done to prevent it in the first place:
1. Managing Voltage on a PCB board
The only way to handle voltage on a PCB board is through ionisation. An ioniser creates great numbers of positively and negatively charged ions. Fans help the ions flow over the work area. Ionisation can neutralise static charges (or voltage) on a PCB board in a matter of seconds.
For more information on ionisation and how to choose the right type of ioniser for your application, please read these posts.
2. Managing Voltage on an Operator
Static voltage on an operator can be eliminated through proper grounding using a workstation monitor, e.g. WS Aware or Iron Man Plus Monitor. Sitting personnel is required to wear wrist straps. A wrist strap consists of a conductive wristband which provides an electrical connection to skin of an operator, and a coil cord, which is connected to a known ground point at a workbench, a tool or a continuous monitor. While a wrist strap does not prevent generation of voltages, its purpose is to dissipate these voltages to ground as quickly as possible.
Sitting personnel can also use continuous monitors – not only is the operator grounded through the continuous monitor, but they also provides a number of additional advantages:
• Immediate feedback should a wrist strap fail
• Monitoring of operators and work stations
• Detection of split-second failures
• Elimination of periodic testing
This post provides more details on continuous monitors.
Moving or standing personnel are grounded via a flooring/footwear system. ESD Footwear (e.g. foot grounders) are designed to reliably contact grounded ESD flooring and provide a continuous path-to-ground by removing electrostatic voltages from personnel.
3. Managing Current
One solution is the "re-routing of ground connection and separation of "noisy" ground from a clean one" as "connecting soldering iron and the workbench to the "quiet" ground often result in lower level of transient signals.". [Source]
This will greatly reduce the high-frequency noise that could cause EOS damage.
If the noise on power lines and ground cannot be reduced manually, then the use of noise filters becomes necessary to reduce the risk of EOS exposure during the soldering process. Utilising these filters suppresses the noise on power lines and will allow the solder iron to use "clean" power only.
In his papers, Vladimir Kraz, explains the set-up of a soldering station using a noise filter in more detail.
Conclusion
During the soldering process, current and voltage spikes between the solder tip and PCB can cause ESD/EOS. Sources are varied:
• Loss of Ground
• Noise on Ground
• Noise on Power Lines
• Power Tools
• Missing/Inadequate ESD Protection
desco esd product Europe offer a number of tools that can detect current, voltage and EMI – all potentially leading to ESD and EOS. Once the source of desco esd product/EOS is known, the next step is eliminating the source:
• Managing Voltage on a PCB board using ionisers.
• Managing Voltage on an operator using workstation monitors or foot grounders.
• Managing Current using noise filters.
• Managing voltage on materials at the work bench.
• Managing ESD generation during specific processes.
• Managing grounding.
共0篇回复 每页10篇 页次:1/1
共0篇回复 每页10篇 页次:1/1
我要回复
回复内容
验 证 码
看不清?更换一张
匿名发表